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trace forever

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原文链接: Log message style guide

如何记录日志信息:1. 当记录一个出错的操作时请说明不应该进行怎样的操作. 2. 当只是正常的记录日志信息时请说明即将进行的是什么操作. 3. 认真对待你的日志信息不要轻率. 4. 记录日志信息请使用正确的大小写以及标点符号. 5. 不同部分的日志信息使用分隔符. 6. 借助日志信息记录工具. 7. 专业一点.

One of the fit-and-finish issues all systems developers need to address is the text of log messages. This is a log message style guide.

Once your product ships, it will be in customers’ hands. They will run it on their machines. You won’t be around, and neither will your debugger. Log messages could be a big part of your customer’s experience with your product, especially when something goes wrong. They could also be a big part of your experience with fixing problems at customer sites.

Be professional

These log messages will be some poor customer’s first view of you after a problem occurs. Make sure the messages make the customer feel better about the product, not worse. Part of it is writing professional English (or whatever language), and part is having the right attitude in the text.

Simply being consistent in your log messages will go a long way toward making them seem professional and authoritative. Below I give guidelines for wording, punctuation, and so on. Even if you don’t use these guidelines, pick some rules, and follow them.

1
GOOD:    Couldn't read record.
BAD:     Something happened?
BAD:     Wow!!!
BAD:     Oops.
1
GOOD:    Reading transaction log.
BAD:     I think I'll read the transaction log.
BAD:     Step 17a
1
GOOD:    Couldn't open storage file.
BAD:     Couldn't   open storage    file
BAD:     Couldn't Open Storage File
BAD:     COULDN'T OPEN STORAGE FILE
1
GOOD:    Couldn't read record.
BAD:     I wish I had been able to read that record
BAD:     Wow!!! No record!
BAD:     Oops. Record on floor.

Think like a support staffer

As a developer, remember that you will be debugging problems with only these log messages to go by. Something will go wrong at a customer site, and you will be sent a log session (more than likely incomplete). You will not have a debugger, you will not have access to the machine. You will have your log messages. Make sure they will be helpful to you.

1
GOOD:    Couldn't save data: corrupt lock record
BAD:     Couldn't save data
BAD:     Couldn't save datacorrupt lock record
1
GOOD:    Couldn't save data: corrupt lock record
BAD:     Couldn't save data | corrupt lock record
BAD:     Couldn't save data <corrupt lock record>
1
BAD:     Couldn't read vital information
GOOD:    Couldn't read vital information: UserName
BETTER:  Couldn't read vital information: UserName on document #2345a1

Use a real log

Many programming environments provide logging facilities. If you have one, use it. If you don’t have one, search the web for one you can use. If you can’t find one, seriously consider spending two days to write one. They provide useful features like timestamping, run-time selection of logging detail and facilities, options for where to log (system console, log file, system event log, etc).

Python has the logging module described in PEP 282, and now standard as of Python 2.3. Java has Apache’s log4j. An example C++ facility is available from CodeProject.

Use your log now

As developers, we have a rich environment in which to experience our code: the debugger. When a problem occurs, our first impulse is to fix it: dive into the debugger, understand what’s happening, fix the code, recompile, no more problem. Except there could still be a problem: what if the same bug had happened at a customer site? Suppose you had to fix the bug with only the log messages to guide you? Would you have been able to?

Next time a bug appears, don’t jump into the debugger. Read the log. What did it tell you? Think hard about what information could have been presented there but was not. How could you make it more useful?

The first thing you should do is change the log to provide the information (ubiquitous stringification can help a great deal here). Run the code again (with the bug). Make sure that the log really is better. Then you can go ahead and fix the bug.

Of course, it is impossible to make logs rich enough to be a complete replacement for a debugger. And maybe you don’t want to put effort into improving your log. But using the log now will at least give you a sense of what your customers and support people (and likely, you) will be experiencing when the product is in the field.